## Papers

All papers are available in the proceedings.

### Non-monotonic Pre-fixed Points and Learning

#### Stefano Berardi and Ugo de' Liguoro

We consider the problem of finding pre-fixed points of interactive realizers over arbitrary knowledge spaces, obtaining a relative recursive procedure. Knowledge spaces and interactive realizers are an abstract setting to represent learning processes, that can interpret non-constructive proofs. Atomic pieces of information of a knowledge space are stratified into levels, and evaluated into truth values depending on knowledge states. Realizers are then used to define operators that extend a given state by adding and possibly removing atoms: in a learning process states of knowledge change nonmonotonically. Existence of a pre-fixed point of a realizer is equivalent to the termination of the learning process with some state of knowledge which is free of patent contradictions and such that there is nothing to add. In this paper we generalize our previous results in the case of level 2 knowledge spaces and deterministic operators to the case of omega-level knowledge spaces and of non-deterministic operators.

### From Branching to Linear Time, Coalgebraically

#### Corina Cirstea

We consider state-based systems modelled as coalgebras whose type incorporates branching, and show that by suitably adapting the definition of coalgebraic bisimulation, one obtains a general and uniform account of the linear-time behaviour of a state in such a coalgebra. By moving away from a boolean universe of truth values, our approach can measure the extent to which a state in a system with branching is able to exhibit a particular linear-time behaviour. This instantiates to measuring the probability of a specific behaviour occurring in a probabilistic system, or measuring the minimal cost of exhibiting a specific behaviour in the case of weighted computations.

### A Coinductive Approach to Proof Search

#### José Espírito Santo, Ralph Matthes and Luís Pinto

We propose to study proof search from a coinductive point of view. In this paper, we consider intuitionistic logic and a focused system based on Herbelin's LJT for the implicational fragment. We introduce a variant of lambda calculus with potentially infinitely deep terms and a means of expressing alternatives for the description of the "solution spaces" (called Bohm forests), which are a representation of all (not necessarily well-founded but still locally well-formed) proofs of a given formula (more generally: of a given sequent). As main result we obtain, for each given formula, the reduction of a coinductive definition of the solution space to a effective coinductive description in a finitary term calculus with a formal greatest fixed-point operator. This reduction works in a quite direct manner for the case of Horn formulas. For the general case, the naive extension would not even be true. We need to study "co-contraction" of contexts (contraction bottom-up) for dealing with the varying contexts needed beyond the Horn fragment, and we point out the appropriate finitary calculus, where fixed-point variables are typed with sequents. Co-contraction enters the interpretation of the formal greatest fixed points - curiously in the semantic interpretation of fixed-point variables and not of the fixed-point operator.

### Infinitary Axiomatization of the Equational Theory of Context-Free Languages

#### Niels Bjørn Bugge Grathwohl, Fritz Henglein and Dexter Kozen

We give a natural complete infinitary axiomatization of the equational theory of the context-free languages, answering a question of Leiss (1992).

### The Fixed-Point Theory of Strictly Contracting Functions on Generalized Ultrametric Semilattices

#### Eleftherios Matsikoudis and Edward A. Lee

We introduce a new class of abstract structures, which we call generalized ultrametric semilattices, and in which the meet operation of the semilattice coexists with a generalized distance function in a tightly coordinated way. We prove a constructive fixed-point theorem for strictly contracting functions on directed-complete generalized ultrametric semilattices, and introduce a corresponding induction principle. We cite examples of application in the semantics of logic programming and timed computation, where, until now, the only tool available has been the non-constructive fixed-point theorem of Priess-Crampe and Ribenboim for strictly contracting functions on spherically complete generalized ultrametric semilattices.

### Guard Your Daggers and Traces: On The Equational Properties of Guarded (Co-)recursion

#### Stefan Milius and Tadeusz Litak

Motivated by the recent interest in models of guarded (co-)recursion we study its equational properties. We formulate axioms for guarded fixpoint operators generalizing the axioms of iteration theories of Bloom and Esik. Models of these axioms include both standard (e.g., cpo-based) models of iteration theories and models of guarded recursion such as complete metric spaces or the topos of trees studied by Birkedal et al. We show that the standard result on the satisfaction of all Conway axioms by a unique dagger operation generalizes to the guarded setting. We also introduce the notion of guarded trace operator on a category, and we prove that guarded trace and guarded fixpoint operators are in one-to-one correspondence. Our results are intended as first steps leading to the description of classifying theories for guarded recursion and hence completeness results involving our axioms of guarded fixpoint operators in future work.

### Lukasiewicz mu-Calculus

#### Matteo Mio and Alex Simpson

The paper explores properties of Lukasiewicz mu-calculus, a version of the quantitative/probabilistic modal mu-calculus containing both weak and strong conjunctions and disjunctions from Lukasiewicz (fuzzy) logic. We show that this logic encodes the well-known probabilistic temporal logic PCTL. And we give a model-checking algorithm for computing the rational denotational value of a formula at any state in a finite rational probabilistic nondeterministic transition system.